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Termites are known to take pollen and regularly visit flowers,177 so are regarded as potential pollinators for a number of flowering plants.178 One blossom in particular, Rhizanthella gardneri, is regularly pollinated by foraging employees, and it's perhaps the only Orchidaceae flower in the world to be pollinated by termites.177
Many plants have developed powerful defences against termites. But, seedlings are vulnerable to termite attacks and need additional protection, as their defence mechanisms only grow when they have passed the seedling phase.179 Defence is normally accomplished by secreting antifeedant compounds into the woody cell walls.180 This reduces the ability of termites to efficiently digest the cellulose.
When kept near the infusion, they get disoriented and eventually perish.181.
Termite populations can be substantially impacted by environmental changes including those caused by human intervention. A Brazilian study investigated the termite assemblages of three websites of Caatinga under different levels of anthropogenic disturbance in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil were sampled using 65 x 2 m transects.182 A total of 26 species of termites had been present in the 3 sites, and 196 encounters were recorded in the transects.
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The wood-feeders were the most badly affected feeding group. .
A termite nest can be considered as being composed of two parts, the inanimate and the animate. The animate is all of the termites living inside the colony, and the inanimate part is the structure itself, which is constructed from the termites. Nests can be broadly divided into three main classes: subterranean (entirely below ground), epigeal (protruding above the soil surface), and arboreal (constructed above ground, but always connected to the ground via shelter tubes).184 Epigeal nests (mounds) protrude from the earth with ground contact and are made from ground and mud.
Most termites construct underground colonies rather than multifunctional nests and mounds.186 Primitive termites of today nest in wooden structures such as logs, stumps and the dead parts of trees, as did termites millions of years ago.184.
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To construct their nests, termites primarily utilize faeces, which have many desirable properties as a construction material. Other building materials include partly digested plant material, used in carton nests (arboreal nests built from faecal elements and wood), and dirt, used in subterranean nest and mound construction. Not all nests are observable, as many nests in tropical woods are located underground.186 Species in the subfamily Apicotermitinae are great examples of subterranean nest contractors, since they only reside inside tunnels.
Nests and mounds shield the termites' delicate bodies against desiccation, light, pathogens and parasites, as well as providing a fortification against predators.188Nests made from carton are particularly weak, and thus the inhabitants utilize counter-attack approaches against invading predators. .
Arboreal carton nests of mangrove swamp-dwelling Nasutitermes are enriched in lignin and depleted in cellulose and xylans. This change is caused by bacterial decay in the intestine of the termites: they utilize their faeces as a carton building material. Arboreal termites nests can account for up to 2% of above ground carbon monoxide in Puerto Rican mangrove swamps.
Some species build intricate nests known as polycalic nests; this habitat is called polycalism. Polycalic species of termites sort multiple nests, or calies, connected with subterranean chambers.107 The termite genera Apicotermes and Trinervitermes are known to have polycalic species.191 Polycalic nests appear to be frequent in mound-building species but polycalic arboreal nests have been observed in a few species of Nasutitermes.191.
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Nests are considered mounds if they protrude from the planet's surface. A mound provides termites the exact same protection as a nest but is stronger.189 Mounds found in areas having official website torrential and continuous rainfall are at risk of mound erosion due to their clay-rich construction. Those made from carton can offer protection from the rain, and in fact can withstand large precipitation.
For instance, Cubitermes colonies build narrow tunnels utilized as strong points, as the diameter of the tunnels is small enough for troops to block.192 A highly protected room, known as the"queens cell", houses the queen and king and can be used as a final line of defence. .
Species in the genus Macrotermes arguably build the most complicated structures in the insect world, constructing enormous mounds. These mounds are among the largest in the world, reaching a height of 8 to 9 metres (26 to 29 ft ), and consist of chimneys, pinnacles and ridges.56 Another termite species, Amitermes meridionalis, can build nests 3 to 4 metres (9 to 13 ft ) high and 2.5 metres (8 ft ) wide.
The sculptured mounds sometimes have fancy and distinctive forms, like those of their compass termite (Amitermes meridionalis and A. laurensis), which builds tall, wedge-shaped mounds with the long axis oriented about northsouth, which gives them their common name.194195 This orientation has been experimentally shown to assist thermoregulation. The north-south orientation causes the internal temperature of a mound to increase rapidly during the morning when avoiding overheating from the midday sun.